R and D, Patents, and Productivity (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)

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It presents research results that in whole or part are suitable for submission to a refereed journal, to a sponsor, to a major conference or to the editor of a book. Our intention is to provide access to early copies of SPRU research. Papers are listed in order from the most recent; click on a heading below to view working papers from that year. The works available here are the responsibility of the individual author s and do not necessarily represent the views of other SPRU researchers.

As matters of policy and practice, SPRU does not endorse individual research contributions. Papers shall be submitted in pdf or Word format. They should contain a title, an abstract, and keywords. Papers should be submitted to swps sussex. The editors will process papers and send them to the appropriate Associate Editor.

Two members of SPRU will be asked to provide a short written review within three weeks. The revised versions of the paper, together with a reply to the reviewers, should be sent to the Associate Editor, who will propose to the Editors its publication on the series. When submitting the authors should indicate if the paper has already undergone peer-review, in which case the Associate Editors may decide to skip internal review process.

Josh Lerner

We shall be grateful if the papers are referenced in the usual way. Each paper contains information with regard to appropriate citation and users are advised that these 'pre-publication' versions are subject to alterations in the refereeing process. We shall also be grateful for feedback from users. Papers published in the SWPS remain the intellectual property of the author, and the author retains all copyrights.

The purpose of the SWPS is to be an open-access source of research. It is worth noting that most academic journals do allow the submission of papers that have been previously published in working paper series. However, authors are advised to check the editorial policy of the journal they wish to submit to. Please note that many academic journals also allow post-print publication, meaning that authors may also be able to publish their work in the SWPS after it has been accepted for publication in a journal.

Ben R. Janaina Pamplona da Costa. Paper published as: S. Paper published as: H. Hammadou, S. Paty, M.

Storey Business and Management. This paper explores the determinants of start-up size by focusing on a cohort of businesses that started trading in , using a unique dataset on customer records at Barclays Bank. In our theoretical model, post-entry growth is treated as a random walk, and start-up size is positively related to survival.

In this view, business experience does not have any impact on post-entry growth since growth is random , but is associated with higher survival if entrepreneurs with prior business experience have a larger start-up size. Quantile regressions show that prior business experience is significantly related with start-up size, as are a number of other variables such as age, education and bank account activity. Quantile treatment effects QTE estimates show that business experience leads to a higher start-up size, with the effect of business experience on log start-up size being roughly constant across the quantiles.

IVQTE estimates are even higher. Does our ability to predict the performance of new ventures improve in the years after startup? We investigate the growth and survival of new ventures that are tracked through the customer records at Barclays Bank. We develop the concept of Gamblers Ruin as a valid approach to understanding new venture growth and survival. The Nagelkerke R2 obtained from growth rate regressions decreases significantly in the years after start-up, which suggests that the fog gets thicker with respect to growth.

However, the Nagelkerke R2 of survival regressions increases in the years after start-up. We study the effects of diverse team composition on the survival and growth of new ventures using the Danish Linked Employer-Employee database. We complement existing work by showing that heterogeneity in team composition is affected by the asymmetric hierarchical structure within the team, and that a uni-dimensional diversity indicator which is usually applied fails to capture a number of performance effects of heterogeneous team composition.

Ventures with a STEM-educated primary founder and a Business-educated secondary founder have high employment growth, while the opposite combination Business first, STEM second has low employment growth. Pairs of younger individuals have lower survival chances but higher employment growth. Family firms have lower employment growth, especially when formed with your mother. Bad health can severely disrupt a person's life. We apply matching estimators to examine how changes in subjective health status as well as different objective conditions of bad health affect subjective well-being.

The strongest effect is in the category alcohol and drug abuse, followed by anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses, stroke and cancer. Adaptation to health impairments depends strongly on the health impairment examined. There is a puzzling asymmetry: strong adverse reactions to deteriorations in health are observed alongside weak increases in well-being after health improvements. Led by the National Development and Reform Commission, in cooperation with the State Environmental Protection Agency now Ministry and other related ministries, the move towards a circular economy in China is being promoted at provincial and sub-provincial levels through policies focussing on firms, eco-parks and industrial areas.

It also investigates the role of municipal regulations in facilitating and incentivising these changes, and contrasts these with other motivations for investment in cleaner technologies. The paper identifies cost-saving as the primary motivation for investments in cleaner production technologies, and discusses technological upgrading as one of the strategies that has led not only to environmental benefits and cost-saving, but also enhanced long-term competitiveness. Avoiding formal censure through government-enforced fines was less commonly cited as a motivation, raising questions as to the role of such formal regulations in cleaner technology governance in Shenzhen.

The design of effective science and innovation policy is partially predicated on the notion that decision makers have reliable evidence-based performance measures. The study of science systems has shown they are complex, adaptive systems with emergent properties frequently characterized by power law distributions and functions.

These properties are rarely used to prepare measures that inform policy makers. Performance measures based on population averages derived from these distributions may have large or indefinable error limits making comparisons across groups misleading or uninformative.

This article illustrates how a scaling model of a science system constructed from Web of Science WoS data can be used to prepare measures with error limits that provide insight into the evolution and performance of a complex science system and answer policy relevant questions.

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This paper evaluates and analyses the role played by intermediary organisations in consolidating the position of an emerging resource-based cluster in exports markets. Through a purpose-built typology, the argument is made that organisations undertaking important intermediary functions act not only to facilitate the transfer and diffusion of knowledge, as previous literature has emphasized, but that in emerging clusters, their scope of activities, extending into leading joint actions by producers, coordinating new investment and enabling new knowledge, places intermediaries at the centre of the network of organisations.

The implications of this for the governance of the cluster, including inclusion of diverse producers is discussed. Julian S. Frankish Barclays Bank plc , Richard G. Fifty websites after the Vietnam War, this download r and d patents and productivity national bureau by thousands of Vietnam Lessons and new, registration-required, Intelligent opinion, Hmong, Australian, and settings cutting and its man. The Xavier Institute for Mutant Education and Outreach is designed its Ions, and offers s to review the next opinion of hubs and books!

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Prioritizing Productivity in Federal R&D Policy to Drive Growth

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Often within a couple of years of introduction, products are upgraded or must be replaced. In these circumstances, slow adopters never catch up; they are always at least one generation behind the advancing frontier of possibilities that new technology represents. That is not a winning formula, and Canada finds itself playing catch-up on too many technologies. As other countries develop and adopt more innovation-related business methods, their companies are gaining in productivity more rapidly than Canadian companies. With new key players—such as China, India, and Brazil—in the global economy, Canadian businesses must move up the value chain and specialize in knowledge-intensive, high-value-added goods and services.

Although Canada has some leading companies that compete handily against global peers, its economy is not as innovative as its size would otherwise suggest. Switzerland is an example of a success story. The report cards reveal that it takes more than just one or two above-average scores to be a leader—it takes coherence.

Coherence distinguishes the leaders from the mediocre. To enlarge this report card in a new window, click on the report card. Many explanations for poor innovation performance have been proposed over the years by academics, industry groups, think-tanks, and government bodies. Some organizations have argued that there is a lack of sufficient risk capital, scientists, engineers, or qualified business managers. Others have looked at firm and entrepreneurial behaviour, such as management reluctance to take risks or to build globally competitive large corporations.

But these studies have been limited by a lack of sufficient data and information. Consequently, more conclusions have been reached based on beliefs and opinions than on actual evidence. Where and how to take action? Some major attempts at solutions have already been tried. For example, great progress has been made in reducing the business tax burden in recent years.

However, we have not seen hoped-for gains in business innovation performance. Is it because the tax changes were not focused on innovative firms? Did regulatory and other public policy roadblocks get in the way? Did Canadian firms fail to adapt quickly enough to the forces of globalization by internationalizing their business through the development of global value chains and greater openness to the use of foreign direct investment? Or is it because there are internal issues within Canadian firms that are preventing them from taking advantage of lower taxes to become more innovative?

Currently, firms appear to be under-investing in innovation-related technologies. So why are we not seeing more Canadian businesses investing in these technologies— especially given the strong Canadian dollar and growing global competition? So far, there are no conclusive answers—or solutions—to these firm-level issues. A major roadblock for business and government is the lack of comprehensive data and information for diagnosing the problem. Once that solid evidence is obtained, the next steps will be to create firm-level strategies and reinvigorate the policy environment to encourage firms to innovate.

Who Dimmed the Lights? Innovative firms frequently cite finance as an important issue. That same CBI survey revealed that firms often finance innovation through internal cash flow and that internal cash flow is the biggest financial barrier to innovative activity. This is typical of the Canadian innovation challenge: great people, great ideas … poor commercialization. CBI research has outlined a number of mechanisms to help improve business capabilities around commercialization: 3. The chart has 21 axes—one for each indicator—that radiate out from the centre.

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