The Art of School Leadership

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These teachers are not necessarily more expensive, they may or may not have an advanced degree, and they may or may not be technologically savvy. They are, however, teachers who continually grow and learn. They look for creative ways to reach their students, and they look for creative ways to challenge themselves. The best way to attract and keep these teachers is to offer a setting in which collegiality is the norm. In a collegial school, everyone can flourish. In my model, school leaders work to create settings in which everyone grows, children and adults alike.

This model stems from three assumptions about people and organizations. The first assumption is that most people desire to do a good job and want to grow. Most employees want to be able to take pride in their work. This is especially true of educators, people who have chosen to spend their careers making life better for children. The second assumption is that organizations should be settings in which employees are both supported and challenged. Leaders need to work with their employees and support them, but leaders also must hold employees to high standards and expect that improvement will be the norm.

However good employees are today, they need to be better tomorrow, next week, next month, and next year. The third assumption is that the group is smarter than any individual. Wise leaders learn from and grow with those around them. This leadership model may seem logical, respectful, and appropriate, but leadership has not always been viewed this way. In Guns, Germs, and Steel , Jared Diamond makes the case that an integral step in the evolution of society was the transition over many thousands of years from huntinggathering to farming.

Hunter-gatherers lived in small bands, roaming to find game and never settling in one place long enough to build a permanent home or create a village. As a result, they never developed the structure and organization that comes from living together over time. Farmers, on the other hand, necessarily lived in one place for long periods. Consequently, different community roles began to evolve as people saw the efficiency that came from dividing their labor. Forms of organization evolved that capitalized on the different skills of individuals. No longer did every male in the tribe spend all his waking hours hunting game.

Some still hunted for their food, but others developed crafts and sold their talents for example, tanning hides or making pottery or shoes in the marketplace in exchange for food. As labor became more focused, groups of individuals working on a particular craft would join forces and physically work near one another.

The Art of School Leadership

Over time, further delineation of responsibility occurred, with individuals becoming accountable for only a portion of a complete task or product. One person worked on one portion of an object; another person worked on another piece. Early hierarchies were established through legacy and maintained through brute force. Nevertheless, some remarkable chapter3. Indeed, through the first thousand years A. This form of organization was effective, though the methods used to establish and maintain the hierarchy took a great toll on its members.

That there were advantages stemming from a group of individuals organized in a hierarchy is beyond question. One need only look at the historical scorecard: Whenever a society with a hierarchy encountered a society without one, the society with the hierarchy always prevailed, often through violent means. Of course, the hierarchy itself did not determine this outcome; rather, the efficiencies and effectiveness that were the result of the hierarchy ensured success. In a hierarchy, individuals were responsible for a set skill or task, something that they could master.

In a hierarchy, directions were given and followed. The presence of organizations and hierarchies had a positive effect on almost all aspects of preparation for conflict: planning strategies, forging weapons, allocating resources, conducting war. Beyond this, as Diamond points out, living in close quarters and working in organizations also created immunity to many diseases something that did not occur when people were predominantly hunter-gatherers. The combination of organizational effectiveness and immunity to diseases enabled a relatively few Europeans to defeat thousands of Central and South Americans in the early s.

Throughout the centuries, although the names and titles varied—king, queen, emperor, empress, pharaoh—societies developed and formed around structures that afforded them advantages. True, not all segments of a society gained from these organizations. Often an underclass was subjugated and exploited. My purpose here is not to argue that organizational hierarchies were moral or fair; often they were—and are— neither.


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For hundreds of years, however, the only large organizations with formal, complex hierarchies were military. A boss and workers might exist on a farm or in a factory or a store, but these farms, factories, and stores remained fairly small, with little or no hierarchical structure until the assembly line was introduced to modern business. Large organizations with true hierarchies came to prominence in the last part of the 19th century.

When the scope of the task mandated it such as building the transcontinental railroad , the model that had been used so successfully in the military was brought to the business world. Once that happened, there was no turning back. For most of the past years, we have assumed that a traditional hierarchy is the most efficient and effective way to organize people in a work setting.

This thinking has been embodied in the work of many leaders. Consider Frederick Taylor, who popularized the notion of scientific management at the turn of the 20th century, carefully prescribing the angle at which a shovel should go into the ground to ensure that the worker was as efficient as possible. Or recall the ultimate bureaucrat, Robert McNamara, the first president of Ford Motors not to be a member of the Ford family and the secretary of defense during much of the Vietnam War.

Efficient and effective management, however, did not mean satisfying everyone. Figure 2 summarizes these trends in management theory. The Assumptions of Hierarchy The assumption that hierarchies are the best way to organize a work force rests on three main principles: 1. The nature of work is predictable and constant and can be divided into discrete tasks. Supervisors are more knowledgeable than their employees. Edwards Deming, Peter Drucker, Tom Peters Employers listened to workers and sought their input; leaders realized that workers who feel better about their jobs will perform better.

Barth Workers learn with and from colleagues; leaders must create conditions that foster growth. Barth, author of Improving Schools from Within. Supervisors have a right to direct employees; employees will unquestioningly accept direction. For many years, these principles were accepted without challenge. Indeed, there was some veracity to such claims. Work was 39 chapter3. Work could be divided into discrete tasks.

Supervisors were more knowledgeable than their employees, and almost everyone felt that supervisors had the right, if not the obligation, to direct employees, who would willingly do what they were told. Times have changed, and these hierarchical principles are no longer valid. We can debate whether or not this change is progress my bias is that it is, but others may disagree , but we cannot debate the fact that in the United States, a dramatic shift has been taking place in the work environment over the past 25 years.

In particular, the relationship of employees to work and employees to supervisors has changed significantly. Although education lags behind business, schools today reflect many of the changes in the business world. Let us look more closely at these principles and see why they have changed.

Workers possessed, by and large, little formal education or training, and they stood in one spot and performed the same function hour after hour. This model not only created complex machinery at a relatively low price, but it was so efficient that decades later, the ability of the United States to manufacture and produce at a higher level than the rest of the world was a major factor in the triumph of the Allied Forces in World War II.

The Marshall Plan rebuilt Europe around the same industrial, hierarchical model that had led to the success in the war. Edwards Deming brought a focus on statistical measures, later termed Total Quality Management, to Japanese industries. With a heavy emphasis on quality control and measurement, Japanese manufacturing companies flourished. Education eventually adopted this mind-set noted by Callahan in Education and the Cult of Efficiency, They were based on the idea that if the curriculum was sufficiently delineated and scripted, then any teacher could be successful with it.

If a teacher will simply follow that formula, success will come. Today, however, work is anything but predictable and constant. The electronic revolution has changed business models.

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Worldwide competition means that businesses must operate leaner, with fewer employees, and they must be more attuned to the marketplace than ever before. Through the Internet, almost every vendor has an opportunity to sell an item to almost every consumer; the corner paint store or drugstore no longer has a quasi-monopoly due to location or a lack of competition. The jury is still out on whether this proliferation of e-businesses will be truly advantageous to consumers, but there is no question that the Internet already has changed the way business is done. Education is also undergoing remarkable changes.

Externally, the advent of choice and consumerism in education, shown by the rapid growth of charter schools, will change the way that all schools operate. Strength through collaboration is effective. The No Child Left Behind legislation only exacerbates this trend. At the same time, internal factors will cause work to be even less predictable and constant. As anyone who has taught for a decade or longer can attest, students are changing.

Many children come to school with a range of needs that is far greater than it was in the past. More children live in poverty, and family dissolution and divorce remain an issue for many children. Teachers not only must teach the three Rs and English as a second language. They also are responsible for drug education, sex education, and fostering higher-level thinking. Sometimes, teachers walk through the same metal detectors at the doors as do the students.

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Here, too, the context, constantly in flux, means that the role of the teacher is anything but predictable and constant. Even more changes are around the corner. Perhaps the biggest shift will be in how teachers execute their roles. Traditionally, schools have been curriculum-centered. A set curriculum existed, often developed by publishing companies. Teachers taught that curriculum, and students were expected to learn that curriculum.

Those who did were considered smart; the rest of the students were good and nice, but they were not smart. Recently, we have witnessed a sea change in education initiated by chapter3. Teachers begin by looking at each student, and then they fashion curriculum and instruction appropriately.

Each child cannot have a unique learning program, but teachers can design individual plans, make accommodations, and create special learning opportunities. This shift has enormous implications for how teachers work and how they are supervised. A better educated workforce means that in some organizations, employees are just as likely as the boss to have an advanced degree.

More recently, the Internet has proved to be a powerful tool for distribution of knowledge. A motivated worker can cruise among millions of Web sites to access practically any information. Many colleges and universities are offering online training, credit, and degrees. Each year, it seems the disparity between the educational level and knowledge base of supervisors and their employees gets smaller. This disparity is even more apparent in schools. Anyone who works in a school recognizes the ludicrousness of the belief that principals are the repositories of knowledge and know more about everything than all their teachers.

There is simply too much information about how students learn, along with too and growth. However, as we will see, such a reality does not suggest that the principal lacks an instructional leadership role or that she cannot help her employees grow; absolutely, she can and she should. It does imply that although principals have expertise and may know more than some—maybe many—of their employees, they can no longer supervise based purely on the superiority of their expertise in curriculum and instruction.

A series of events in the United States challenged this thinking, from the assassination of John F. Kennedy, to Watergate, to the Vietnam War, to the presidential election. These events have left several generations with a distrust of authority. But there is more.

A generation ago, a boss could expect an employee to do something, just chapter3. Today, employee acceptance and compliance often is not based on the positional, legitimate power that bosses hold. The Evolution of Leadership A hierarchy in which the lines of communication were limited and the chain of command was clear and rigid was once considered the portrait of a fine organization. Today, such a hierarchy is no longer effective. As the relationships between supervisors and supervisees change, so too must the organizational structure change.

People are better educated, and the truly talented ones, the ones you want to motivate, have many more options of their own. By understanding how leadership and organizational structures have evolved, we can have a better appreciation for their shape today. Again, this change is as true in schools as it is in other organizations. Societal trends and changes affect schools, and principals no longer receive the deference and respect that they used to be given based purely on their position. This change does not mean Supervisors need to be seen as partners in the educational process.

Instead, supervisors must possess the attitudes and skills that help them treat employees as talented and creative knowledge workers. Supervisors must facilitate growth and both support and challenge their employees. Supervisors must learn with and from their colleagues, as leadership is about relationships. Throughout this book, I will offer some new ways of looking at supervision, mind-sets, and strategies in which the goal is growth, not just compliance.

This advice, given by the Cheshire Cat to Alice as she wandered through Wonderland, captures the importance of goals. Without goals, what determines where we will spend our time or how we will focus our energies? Do we focus on developing a particular aspect of curriculum, or do we create new assessment instruments? Do we refine our questioning skills or work on our wait-time?

Do we give special attention to the students who are lagging or to the ones who are blossoming? Or do we set all that aside to work on creating home-school partnerships? A big part of the difficulty in setting and following through on professional goals is that there are so many worthy directions. Each of the activities listed above is not only needed; each also is necessary. How can we fail to address curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment? How can we not strive to meet the needs of all students? How can we not make the extra effort to work with parents? But reality intrudes.

We simply cannot do all these things and do them well. Finite hours and energy mean that we must prioritize and focus our efforts. If we do not, we will wander here and there, like Alice, following whims and responding to spur-of-the-moment crises. Without a focus, we are likely to spend our time heading in two directions, both counterproductive. On the one hand, we may spread our energies too widely.

When this happens, we cannot achieve enough progress in any 47 4 chapter4. On the other hand, we may simply continue with the same behaviors and activities of previous years, regardless of their effectiveness. Doing this is a disservice to our students and teachers and to ourselves. The goal-setting process can be a tool to focus ourselves and others on a path that leads to professional growth. Principals should set goals with their teachers, and they should set goals for themselves, which they should share with others more on this later.

The goal-setting process should be collaborative, with principals and teachers working together. Teachers live their goals, so it is logical and fair that they should have significant input in developing them. Goal setting and monitoring henceforth whenever the term goal setting is used, it implies goal monitoring as well are an integral part of professional development.

After all, without goals, how will you know if you succeed? Too often, the goal-setting process is done poorly. We are tempted, for example, to give the most talented teachers little attention and devote most of our time and energy to newer or struggling teachers. This is a mistake. Newer and struggling teachers need attention, but the best teachers also benefit from reflection and dialogue.

No matter how good they are, they can become better. It is not easy to set goals that are relevant and reasonable and that will contribute to learning. Once goals are set, it is even more difficult to monitor the process. However, given the important role that goal setting can play in professional growth, goal setting is something that must be done, and must be done well, with all our teachers. Factors in Selecting Goals How goals are set, their focus, and the way we monitor progress toward achieving them varies due to a host of factors. In thinking about the goal-setting process, we need to consider the teaching context: chapter4.

After all, at the end of the year, businesses can look at their balance sheets to determine if it they were successful: Did they generate enough revenue to make a sufficient profit? Did the company generate shareholder value?

In some jobs, such as sales or professional services, pay is very individualized and based solely on productivity as measured by a dollar sign. Of course, this is not the case in education. We bridle, appropriately, at the thought of the progress of our students or ourselves being measured only by standardized test scores. We know that there is much more to educating students than increasing their gains on tests, important as that can be.

Simply put, all things that are important cannot be measured. Balancing the measurable and nonmeasurable aspects of growth makes the goal-setting process more complex in schools and other nonprofit organizations. Who sets them, how is goal setting done, how is progress measured, and what role does attaining goals have in how teachers are viewed or rewarded? As important as the teaching context is to the setting of goals, so too are the talents and needs of the teacher. A new teacher in Davis, California, working with underachieving and impoverished students should have different goals than his teammate with 20 years of experience.

Their goals should be different from those of a teacher in Racine, Wisconsin, who works with gifted students and was selected Teacher of the Year. Still different will be the goals of a veteran teacher in Orlando, Florida, who has a new class or is using a new mathematics curriculum. Note also that the paths to attaining goals can be radically different even if the goals are the same.

There are many sound ways to pursue any goal, and the goal plan should be influenced by both the teaching context and the characteristics of the individual teacher. Irrespective of their talents and needs, all teachers prosper when they have input into their goals, when they can work from their strengths and passions, and when they learn with and from others.

The Assignment of Goals The kinds of goals and the process for goal setting will vary with the experience and skill of the teacher. In general, it is always good to offer teachers opportunities to create their goals and ways their progress can be measured.

However, there are times, especially with younger or weaker teachers, when an administrator needs to assign the goal. Years ago, for example, I worked with a teacher who had many strengths but was far more negative with her students than was appropriate.

We talked about this at length, yet she never quite accepted my assessment. The good news in this story is that I monitored the student work and she chapter4. No matter who assigns the goals, the goal-setting process should be collaborative. Who the collaborators are—a teacher and principal, two teachers, several teachers, or a group of teachers and the principal—will vary depending upon the school context, the individuals, and the goal.

In all cases, the goal-setting process should include at least two people who agree on the goals and then communicate periodically to monitor progress. Sharing goals and the progress toward them increases accountability. Goals that are not shared with others are just hopes. Despite these differences, however, the following elements should be part of all teacher goals.

Goals Should Be Meaningful One might wonder why this characteristic even needs to be stated. Of course goals should be meaningful, and they should lead to increased student learning. Although learning can be defined and measured in many ways—from scores on traditional or standardized tests to rubric-based assessments of presentations to a reduction in altercations in the lunchroom—increased learning should be at the heart of all goals.

But there is more to the descriptor meaningful. Goals are most meaningful when their attainment benefits both students and teachers. Absolutely, the goal-setting process should benefit students; that is beyond doubt. But the goalsetting process should also benefit teachers. Unless teachers and helps prepare them for more goal setting and achievement. The goal-setting process should reflect the fact that student growth results from an interaction between student and teacher. A meaningful goal-setting process addresses the growth of both students and teachers.

The goal also allows me to periodically ask how the process is going and what has been learned. For someone who is in a new work setting, it is essential to learn the environment—the written and unwritten rules, as well as the personalities; having this as a formal goal makes the pursuit of this knowledge highly meaningful.

Sometimes, experienced teachers who are new to us tend to minimize what needs to be learned, and it can be difficult for them to accept this as a goal. Yet this goal is valid for all teachers who are new to us, regardless of their experience. The goals of seasoned teachers should reflect their knowledge and skills and should be challenging.

Without ever observing or even knowing the teachers on a chapter4. Important and relevant as these goals might be, they do not readily lend themselves to a number. Thus, how goals are measured is a critical issue. In measuring goals, it is appropriate to look at mean scores, average gains, and standard deviations. Traditional tests can play a role in documenting progress. However, not all goals need to be—or should be—quantifiable. As we look at both what students learn and how they learn, it is obvious that some goals do not lend themselves to quantification. Instead of backing away from these goals, we need to find new ways to monitor progress toward them.

Indeed, creativity is often needed to track some of the most important objectives. Student surveys and journal entries by students and teachers come to mind. Granted, surveys often do yield numerical data, but such numbers are quite different from test scores. Similarly, noting the degree to which students choose to pursue complex or difficult projects, or how eager they are to participate in class discussions, offers important information that could capture motivation or enthusiasm.

Rubric-based assessments and checklists also can be used to evaluate these kinds of attitudes and behaviors. Again, even though test data have their place, not all goals need to be measured this way. Some of the most important goals—those that We have only one goal: to ignite the learning fire in all faculty members and our students.

Finally, in thinking about goals that are measurable but not necessarily quantifiable, we should also embrace the idea that much good can come from teachers working creatively to determine how progress toward goals can be measured and recorded. Goals Should Be Achievable Teachers should feel that their goals are achievable, that with hard work and concentrated effort they can attain them.

We must set realistic goals that are neither too easy nor too difficult.

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An advantage of setting multiple goals is that some goals can and should be challenging whereas others can and should be less so. A variety of goals is important. Implicit in this statement is the belief that teachers should set more than one goal each year. The administration can help by promoting the expectation that teachers will not achieve every goal they set. If a teacher realizes all her goals, then the goals were not ambitious enough; if a teacher realizes none of her goals, then they were too arduous and unrealistic.

See Stretch Goals on p. Although setting more than one goal is helpful, we have to guard against the tendency, particularly by experienced, skilled teachers, to set too many goals. Years ago, one of my more talented and driven teachers came to her annual review with a list of her goals for the following year—all 16 of them! I gasped and responded that I appreciated her motivation and global view of our school, but 16 goals were simply too many to pursue effectively while staying relatively sane. After much debate, we narrowed her focus to five goals though three would have been better!

This teacher still works with me, and each year at her review, we laugh about her 16 goals. However, each year she chapter4. This negotiation has become an annual ritual for us. Further, even if two teachers of similar talent level were teaching comparable students at the same school, their goals might be identical, but the strategies to achieve these goals would be very different. In fact, often there is more variation in the strategies for how goals will be pursued than in the goals themselves. Just as we respect each student as a unique learner, we must respect each teacher.

Developing different strategies for accomplishing their goals, including creating new assessment tools, is a great way for teachers to stay excited about their work and to keep growing. In situations in which the same goals are kept from year to year, experimenting with different strategies to achieve these goals is essential if teachers are to avoid becoming stagnant.

Sometimes, what appeals most to experienced and talented teachers is an opportunity to develop curriculum or to take on a leadership role with other adults. To the degree that they can become teachers of teachers within their schools, everyone gains. Of course, sometimes these kinds of teachers are so skilled because they eschew much interaction with their peers and focus all their energies on their students. It is hard to complain about this dedication, and yet I am convinced that everyone benefits from a collegial setting. Kinds of Goals The effectiveness of the goal-setting process—the degree to which it benefits both students and teachers—is rooted in the effectiveness of the goals themselves.

In addition, there are different kinds of goals. Typically, the administrator chooses which kind of goal to pursue, though often with teacher input, depending upon the experience and talents of the teacher. The kind of goal that is chosen will frame the way a teacher thinks about the goal and the strategies for achieving it.


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Stretch goals are so challenging, so global, or so ideal that a teacher cannot reasonably be expected to achieve them. Stretch goals are important because the efforts to achieve them can result in positive outcomes, whether or not the goals are achieved. As a result of her years of excellent performance, a teacher should earn the right to have a stretch goal.

I cannot emphasize enough that stretch goals should not be set by all, or even by most, teachers.

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Being given the opportunity to set a stretch goal is a big compliment to the teacher. A stretch goal implies that the teacher is already extraordinarily proficient and that—and this is a separate issue—the teacher has the wisdom to appreciate the merit in setting a goal for which she is not likely to achieve success.

That is, the teacher understands the rationale behind this strategy and accepts that the invitation to set a stretch goal is high praise from the administrator. The words offers, opportunity, and invitation are important because a stretch goal should be voluntary. A potential problem is that teachers who are offered opportunities to set stretch chapter4. They enjoy challenges. Unless setting a stretch goal is done carefully, however, these teachers can make themselves crazy by trying to achieve their stretch goals. Then they can become disappointed and upset when they are not successful.

Stretch goals are appropriate for administrators, too. Louis community. It is a good stretch goal because even though I will never fully accomplish it, the pursuit makes us a better school and helps me to grow. As a result of this stretch goal, I focus on the curriculum, teaching, and assessment techniques that will enable us to be a national leader in implementing multiple intelligences.

I also focus on how collegiality can be used to help our faculty grow. Through my presentations at conferences and workshops, along with my writing, I also try to be a voice for multiple intelligences and faculty collegiality in communities outside St. Louis and around the world. Pursuing my stretch goal yields many benefits to New City School and to me. Team goals are generated collaboratively by a team of teachers, and all team members are accountable for them.

The teachers in a high school social studies department might develop a team goal to revise curriculum or to use student portfolios in assessment. A team of 4th grade teachers might decide on a team goal to involve their students in community service. Perhaps a team of 57 Goals work best for me when I generate them myself, rather than having a topic handed to me. There is much collegial merit in having teams meet to share their goals and how they plan to measure them, as well as in periodically gathering to discuss the progress that has been made. Team goals are a good way to provide leadership opportunities to faculty veterans and to enable them to help younger teachers develop.

At New City School, we ask teaching teams to generate one team goal each year. The administration selects the area for the goal, and the team must determine its goal and how progress will be measured. Another team goal falls under the category of recognizing the differences between consumers students and customers their parents.

School Focus Goals School focus goals are usually top-down goals that either are directly tied to a school theme such as in a magnet school or are a response to a schoolwide problem such as low achievement or behavior issues. If this is the case, it is imperative that teachers also develop their own additional professional goals. A school focus goal that would be an exception to this narrow approach would be to prepare for an accreditation visit or to implement a new curriculum. Consider the New City School mission statement: New City School is an urban school in which children from age 3 through 6th grade participate in a joyful and challenging education.

In our creative environment, children become confident and knowledgeable about themselves and others. We prepare children to become successful, compassionate, and ethical learners through a combination of academics, ambience, and diversity. From this mission statement, teachers might select goals in a variety of areas. They could develop materials or pedagogical practices to provide a joyful education, to provide a challenging education, to enable children to become confident and knowledgeable about themselves, to enable children to become confident and knowledgeable about others, or to enable children to become successful, compassionate, and ethical learners.

Similarly, there are times when we have asked teachers to develop a goal that addresses one of our three major components: academics, ambience, and diversity. Further, even if gains are made in one year, the next year is needed to solidify and review the gains. That means that most goals will require more than one year to be accomplished.

For newer or less talented teachers, a shorter time frame might be appropriate. Multi-year goals offer the advantage of helping us take the long view and avoid short-term solutions. Private and Public Goals Life without goals is like a race with no finish line. Not only does such dialogue enhance faculty collegiality, but teachers gain from the interaction and inspiration. However, private goals—those that are shared only between teacher and administrator—also have a place.

Or the goals might address something the teacher would not want shared broadly. There are 45 people on my faculty, so this level of dissension is not as significant as it may sound! In almost all cases, working to address the situation becomes a goal for the teacher. The teacher and I plan together and periodically meet to see what progress is being made, but this is not a public goal. Sometimes the concern gets translated into teacher leadership, and the teacher and I plan how she might play more of a leadership role within her teaching team or the faculty. Sometimes, typically at my behest, the teacher with the concern subsequently shares her thoughts with the teacher who was chapter4.

Occasionally the two teachers can work out their differences simply by talking about them and being more aware of their interactions. But sometimes this sharing results in the three of us meeting about how work relationships can be improved. Often, when I meet with teammates who are having difficulties working as colleagues, I begin by asking each of them to write down three things that they enjoy about working with the other person and three things that drive them crazy.

Before they share their lists, I ask them to also write what they speculate the other person has written. Doing this forces them to step back and try to see how they are perceived. I emphasize the word perception and remind them that perceptions are reality; we react to what we see and feel, whether or not it is the truth. Instead, as we share what they wrote, we work on seeing how we come across to others and what we can do to change impressions and perceptions.

These meetings are never easy; it is difficult to see ourselves through the lenses of others. But such honest interactions are almost always productive. Everyone benefits when the members of a faculty, including the administrators, look at the effect that their interactions can have on others. Although most teacher goals should be professional ones, there are times when it is appropriate to set a professional goal 61 chapter4.

What is your goal for the year? Goals give us focus, and our progress in meeting them provides us with instant feedback. Without focusing our efforts, we are less likely to succeed. Indeed, without goals, how can we know whether or not we have succeeded?

We want a greater percentage of students to pass; we want to improve student attendance; we want students doing better in X, Y, or Z or, more likely, in X, Y, and Z. Sometimes our goals are professionally oriented: We want to improve this pedagogical technique, we want to develop that curriculum, or we want to create a new professional development plan. Goals that focus only on student progress, pedagogy, and curriculum ignore the way we function and grow and the way we work with and lead others. Yet these factors are crucial to our success and to the success of those we work with.

These are different from purely personal goals losing weight or learning how to play the piano and different from purely professional goals writing curriculum or raising test scores. But how do you decide on a goal? I went through a evaluation, a performance assessment based entirely on the perceptions of the plus people who work with me. It was both affirming and humbling. Learn more about this year's conference. The Institutes are designed to provide in-depth experiences that are unavailable through regular coursework.

Search Website Search People. Apply to Kutztown. Request Information. Visit Kutztown. Search Entire Site. Search Our Knowledge Center. Get the latest news and ideas from Wallace. Sign Up. Education Leadership: Evidence and Implications. Principal pipelines demonstrate staying power with continued commitment by districts long after Wallace funding ended. Episode 9: Measuring the Effectiveness of Principal Pipelines.

Lead researchers behind a groundbreaking study of the effectiveness of principal pipelines discuss the research design. A RAND Corporation study finds that six large school districts that built principal pipelines saw better retention of new principals.

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